Guide to Learning Polish Grammatical Cases

By OptiLingo • 6 minutes read

If you have been wondering how to learn Polish cases, the following run down and introduction should prove to be helpful. Learning a language is easier than ever since the advent of the internet. Even more so, most instructional materials are not only available online but also free. In addition to cost, not having to wait for a traditional classroom setting; you can access your language learning material at all hours of the day and at your convenience.

Without further ado, the following paragraphs will contain a basic run down of the introduction to the Polish language and its grammatical cases. These cases include nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative cases and grammatical rules. Some cases and forms are more difficult to learn than others, depending on a student’s native language, but it is possible for anyone to being learning this introduction to Polish language and grammar.



Nominative is the first of seven Polish cases that will be covered in this article. It is used to describe people, objects, facts, and can be used to answer questions. The main subject of the nominative case is the subject of the phrase or sentence. It is important to note that there is no gendered articles in Polish, so noun endings are responsible for distinguishing what the grammatical gender is. Like in all languages, however, there are a plethora of exceptions to these rules and to memorise and learn. There are few rules governing the plural version of the nominative case of Polish, so it is most practical usually to just memorise the different endings.



The next case in Polish is the Genitive form, which is primarily used for responding to others or answering questions. It is a relatively important for Polish and used much more frequently than many other languages with similar roots. In the Polish language, genitive case is used for specify the owner of the particular belongings, in sentences with verbs that indicate an increase or decrease in something, and certain verbs, prepositions, sentences with a specific time, and after a number used with a noun. The most critical usage of the genitive case, is to create sentences with negation. Even if half of the sentence is accusatory or positive form, the genitive is always used for the negation of the sentence in its conclusion.



Dative case is the third Polish case to learn and bears stark similarities to the German grammatical case of the same name, which can possibly help a student learn this case. This case is used to answer ‘who’ or ‘what’ questions or to target specific objects in a sentence of a specific activity. This case is a lot easier to learn than most of the other cases and is rarely used when speaking or writing modern Polish. In addition to this, the dative case has very few grammatical exceptions, so once one learns the rules and endings of this case, there will be few deviations from said rules.



Next is the accusative case, and is a bit more complex than some of the other cases, but introduces few new endings, which balances out its ease of learning. This is used to relate an activity or function to a specific object and it can be used in single or prepositional form. The only piece of the accusative case will may cause problems to students is the masculine division. But with practice, it can be learned, just like all things.



Instrumental case is the next Polish case to be learned and is primarily used for interrogative words and phrases. There is no equivalent to this case in English, nor any other language with similar roots or origin. Like the genitive case, this one is quite easy to learn, as it introduces few new endings and has few grammatical exceptions or irregularities. At lot of these forms are rarely used, however, so if more trouble is experienced while learning them, it is not the immediate end of a student’s Polish studies and education.



Locative case in Polish is the sixth of seven cases that make up the foundation of Polish language studies and learning Polish grammar. This case is unique in that it does not exist on its own, rather, it depends on the verbs, nouns, prepositions, and adjectives inform the behaviour of the locative grammatical case. Due to this, this is often called the prepositional case. This is similar, kind of, to the dative case, but not entirely. An actual locative case does not exist in any language other than Polish. Finally, the locative case can be used for both questions and answers. Because this case fits into odd places and rules within Polish, it is on of the more difficult to learn.



The final case to learn in Polish is the vocative case. This is a special case and special scenario case. It is used to address people, but varies based on specific situation. Last name or family name is always addressed in the nomative form, but vocative is used more for first names, job titles, and the like. There is no equivalent in any other language, but despite this case’s complications, it adds few new endings to learn. After learning this, all of the cases needed to speak modern Polish will have been learned.



When it comes down to how to learn Polish cases, the Mowic Po Polsku website and its resources are an excellent place to begin. Since the internet began widespread, there is such an increased ability to learn information than ever before. Included in this is language, as the internet makes it easier to learn a new language than ever before. Additionally, there are a plethora of online resources that are free or extremely low cost. Another benefit of online resources is that students do not need to sign up for classes and wait for a once or twice a week meeting to continue learning their language. Instead, online students have access to their learning materials whenever and wherever it is convenient. The sheer amount of online resources available to students is truly staggering and allows students a massive amount of freedom in the methods and timing of their foreign language education. So, when asking hot to learn Polish cases, the first place to look very well may be the internet. Remember to be patient, but study hard and diligently – soon you’ll be reading and speaking a new language.


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