Language is a construct humans work in every day to express a wide range of emotions, ideas, concepts, and actions. Yet it still seems to be incredibly difficult to learn a second language. It seems odd because we didn’t really have to work to learn the one we know now.
This is a common thought, and it is entirely wrong.
You worked incredibly hard to learn what the people around you were saying. It didn’t happen overnight, so you should not expect learning another language to be any easier. In fact, if it takes you less than a few years to be comfortable using a new language, it was easier than learning your first language. Remember, you are still studying your first language in high school, so you aren’t quite as adept at it as you may think you are.
To learn your next language faster, you are probably looking for the right language theory. IT can help you move faster through the learning process. However, it is not the only thing you need, in fact its effect will largely be at the start. Still, knowing it will give you a boost that most people lack.
There is no one better to talk about language theory than the men known for thinking in terms of theory. They break down the thinking process in a way that helps you to understand how and why you think in a certain way.
In the end, this will help you keep your thought process where it needs to be to get the most out of the language learning experiences.
Plato – One of the Biggest Names in Western Philosophy
While he is best known for philosophy, Plato did a good bit of thinking about language. This shouldn’t come as a surprise, considering the fact that the use of language was how he got his point across about philosophy.
Plato believed that knowledge was something that humans simply had; it was innate. His idea is called Plato’s Problem, in which he asked how humans were able to accomplish so much with so little time given to them. Language was an innate human element, and that is why most humans are able to start talking well before they are ten years old.
When you consider that language is part of your thinking process, it will be a lot less intimidating to simply learn another way to think the thoughts you already have.
Descartes and Cartesian Linguistics
Descartes subscribed to Plato’s idea that language is simply something people do naturally. Descartes’ belief was based on the fact that he believed humans to be largely rational creatures, and language was required to interact.
The Cartesian movement that started based on his beliefs reflected on the fact that language was used creatively. Yet there are still many similarities even between the least similar languages.
This is heartening because it means that you just need to find the similarities between English and your target language to start understanding how the language works.
Locke and Tabula Rasa
You have probably heard of the blank slate concept put forth by Locke. It shows that he did not subscribe to the idea that anything was innately known. Everyone began with a blank slate that they had to fill, and that includes language. Everything is learned from our senses.
This can be comforting if for no other reason than because you probably feel that is where you are right now with your target language.
These three philosophers largely discussed language in passing, not postulating many specifics. The next four theories are much more language specific.
Skinner and the Theory of Behaviorism
Skinner agreed with Locke and he spent a lot of time developing the Theory of Behaviorism from it. His theory says that all behavior is in response to the stimuli around us. He applied this to language learning through operant conditioning, which used reinforcement and punishment to teach.
One of the most common examples of this is parents who refuse to acknowledge a child’s request until the child says “please.” The reward is getting what was requested, and the idea of saying “please” is reinforced through that reward.
Theory of Behaviorism says we need feedback to be successful, even in learning a language.
Chomsky and Universal Grammar
Noam Chomsky was developing his own ideas while Skinner was working on his Theory of Behaviorism. Chomsky developed the theory of Universal Grammar. It was pretty much the antithesis of Skinner’s theory. Chomsky believed in at least some innate ability in humans for language. His proof was the fact that there are some universal elements in all languages.
While it definitely goes farther to explain learning a first language than Skinner’s theory, it really doesn’t apply to learning a second language. It simply reinforces that there are similar elements, but does nothing to help identify how to learn everything that is completely dissimilar.
Schumann and the Acculturation Model
John Schumann looked specifically at how immigrants learn a new language once they relocate. His theory is called the Acculturation Model and addresses language in much more detail than the other theories.
Instead of thinking of language learning in terms of learning for pleasure, he examined it when it was a necessity. Immigrants learned a new language with much more pressure from social and psychological areas. It usually meant either success or failure.
If an immigrant’s language was roughly equal socially to the language of their new home, they were more likely to learn the language. The same was true if the cultures were similar. This points out that there are many psychological and social reasons for learning a language – ideas that were not examined by any of the earlier philosophers.
Krashen and the Monitor Model
Stephen Krashen compiled several theories about language, theories which today are the most often used to describe learning a second language. The following are the primary ideas to take away from his theories.
- Acquiring a language is largely subconscious because it stems from natural and informal conversations.
- Learning a language is very much conscious effort and relies heavily on correction, which is more formal.
- Grammar is largely learned in a predictable series and order.
- Acquiring a language occurs when it is provided through comprehensible input, such as talking or reading.
- A monitor can be anyone or anything that corrects your language errors and to pressure you to improve.
The primary take away from the theory is that acquiring and learning a language are different, but they can have similar elements. Error correction is essential for both acquisition and learning.
While none of these theories may do much to help you actually learn a language, it can make you feel better to know that even the knowledge of learning a language is up for debate. You may feel one or two of them more closely works for the way you think, and that can help you better understand how to use that theory to your advantage.
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