Spanish Grammar and Cases

By OptiLingo

Complete overview of Spanish grammatical cases, complete with Spanish nominative case, Spanish accusative case, Spanish dative case and Spanish genitive case.

Understanding grammar will help you on your way to foreign language fluency. When learning the Spanish language, it’s important to know how grammar and cases work in Spanish.

Spanish Nominative Case

To better understand how a noun functions in a sentence, you should be able to figure out its case. The following example can be dissected to show the different cases.

El hermano toca el piano desde arriba.          The brother plays the piano from upstairs.

Nominative case – subject of the sentence (brother from the example).

Accusative case – direct object (piano in the example above)

Dative case – indirect object (upstairs in the example)

Genitive Case – shows ownership, usually a pronoun

The following chart should help you better follow the three cases. Don’t worry, you don’t need to memorize it now; it will help you through the later sections.

Nominative Case

Accusative Case

Dative Case

Genitive Case

yo

I

me

me

me

me

el mío / la mía
los míos / las mías

mine

tú / vos-

you (informal)

te

you (informal)

te

you (informal)

el tuyo / la tuya
los tuyos / las tuyas

yours (informal)

usted

you (formal)

Lo/la, se (masculine)

him / its / you (formal)

Le, se

him / her / its / you (formal)

el suyo / la suya
los suyos / las suyas

his / hers /

yours (formal)

él

he

Lo (masculine)

him / its / you (formal)

le, se

him

suyo(s)

his

ella

she

Las (feminine)

her

Le, se

her

suya(s)

hers

ello

him

lo

you all

Le, se

him

suyo(s)

his

nosotros/nosotras

we -masc. / fem.-

nos

us (formal)

Nos

us (formal)

nuestro(s)/nuestra(s)

ours (formal)

vosotros/vosotras

you (informal)

-masc. / fem.-

os

us (informal)

os

us (informal)

vuestro(s)/ vuestra(s)

ours (informal)

ustedes

you (formal)

los/las, se

you (formal)

les, se

You (formal)

Suyos, suyas

Yours (formal)

ellos

they (masculine)

los, se

them (masculine)

les, se

Them (masculine)

Suyos

theirs

ellas

they (feminine)

las, se

them (feminine)

les, se

Them (feminine)

Suyas

Hers

As you discover, you’ll figure out what function each noun or pronoun serves in the sentence, and it will be considerably easier to understand what someone is trying to say.