Learn Russian Pronouns

By optilingo

Complete lesson on Russian pronouns, including subject, object, prepositional, reflexive & relative pronouns. Includes Russian demonstrative, indefinite & interrogative pronouns.

Understanding grammar will help you on your way to foreign language fluency. When learning the Russian language, it’s important to know how pronouns work.

Personal pronouns

Singular

Plural

1st person

Nominative

я

мы

Genitive

меня́

нас

Dative

мне

нам

Accusative

G

G

Instrumental

мной

нáми

Prepositional

(обо) мне

(о) нас

2nd person

Nominative

ты

вы

Genitive

тебя́

вас

Dative

тебé

вам

Accusative

G

G

Instrumental

тобóй

вáми

Prepositional

(о) тебé

(о) вас

3rd person

Nominative

он,онó, онá

они́

Genitive

(н)егó, (н)её

(н)их

Dative

(н)ему, (н)ей

(н)им

Accusative

G

G

Instrumental

(н)им

(н)и́ми

Prepositional

(о) (н)ём, (н)ей

(о) (н)их

Possessive Pronouns / Adjectives

Possessive decline in Russian. The possessives мой, my/mine,твой, your/yours, свой, my/your/hisetc., decline the same way:

Masculine / Neuter

Feminine

Plural

Nominative

мой, моё

моя́

мои́

Genitive

моегó

моéй

мои́х

Dative

моемý

моéй

мои́м

Accusative

N or G,

мою́

N or G

Instrumental

мои́м

моéй

мои́ми

Prepositional

моём

моéй

мои́х

The declension of these possessives is similar to the declension of the cardinal numeral оди́н. The possessiveсвой indicates possession by any person (1st, 2nd or 3rd, singular or plural) as long as that person (the possessor) is the subject of the sentence. It should be used in preference to other possessives, although these can be heard in spoken Russian [The Best Way to Speak Russian].

ОнуезжáетвоФрáнциюксвоéйсестрé- He is going to his sister’s in France. Свойis not used in the nominative. ЛéтомегóсестрáуезжáетвоФрáнцию- In summer, his sister goes to France.

The plural possessive наш, our, and ваш, your (formal or plural) decline in the same way:

Masculine / Neuter

Feminine

Plural

Nominative

наш, нáше

нáша

нáши

Genitive

нáшего

нáшей

нáших

Dative

нáшему

нáшей

нáшим

Accusative

N or G,

нáшу

N or G

Instrumental

нáшим

нáшей

нáшими

Prepositional

нáшем

нáшей

нáших

Third person possessive do not decline. As in English, they agree in gender and number with the subject (the possessor of the object): егó, his; её, her; их, their.

Этоегóкастрю́ля, That’s his saucepan (the possessor is a male because егóis masculine; the gender of the object possessed, the feminine noun кастрю́ля, has no influence on the gender of the possessive).

Утебя́еёключи́, You have her keys (the possessor is female because еёis feminine; the gender of the object possessed, the masculine plural noun ключи́, has no influence on the gender or number of the possessive).

Мыихдéти, We are their children (here the plural possessive ихis used because there is more than one owner (i.e. the two parents).

Interrogative and Relative Pronouns / Adjectives

Declension of the pronouns кто and что – These pronouns only have a singular form. The pronoun кто, who, refers to animate beings, whereas что, what, refers to objects. Ктоdeclines like тот, that, чтоdeclines in the same way but with soft endings.

The stress is final, except in the nominative and instrumental plurals.

Masculine / Neuter

Feminine

Plural

Nominative

сам, самó

самá

сáми

Genitive

самогó

самóй

сами́х

Dative

самомý

самóй

сами́м

Accusative

N or G,

самý

N or G

Instrumental

сами́м

самóй

сами́ми

Prepositional

самóм

самóй

сами́х

Remember that сам is positioned after a noun or personal pronoun to stress that the subject is performing the action alone without any help: Они́сáмивы́бралисвойнóвыйдом. –They chose their new house themselves.

Additionally,сам is positioned before a noun or after a personal pronoun in an oblique case to stress the importance of the noun or pronoun: Тóлькоонá самá мóжетреши́ть, ктоейнрáвитсябóльше.

Onlyshecandecidewhoshelikesmore.Вчерáмыразговáривалиссами́мПрезидéнтом!-Yesterday we talked to the president himself!